Publication Date



Social System Design Lab, Washington University in St. Louis


The COVID-19 pandemic ushered in the new reality of remote working and learning, forcing group model building practitioners to make an abrupt shift to online workshops. Like our peers, the Social System Design Lab (SSDL) at Washington University in St. Louis confronted this challenge by exploring what tools existed for adaptation and continued collaboration. The shift has not been easy, but it has revealed new insights that suggest areas to leverage the strengths of online GMB long after the pandemic comes to an end.

The purpose of this brief is to compare facilitation team roles in traditional, in-person GMB sessions with those in online GMB sessions, shedding particular light on how the realities of online platforms shift what tools facilitators have at their disposal when engaging a group of participants.

Series Number

Methods Brief Series 2.03: Facilitation Team Roles in Online GMB

Document Type

Research Brief