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As it stands, public, residential, and commercial properties account for 30 % of the total energy consumed around the globe. This is expected to increase significantly in the next generation, with an additional 5 billion people requiring cooling by 2070, due to the fact that more areas are experiencing higher temperatures that up to this point did not require cooling technologies. With such a large area requiring cooling, there exists an opportunity to make the new generation of areas requiring cooling a more environmentally friendly one. Technologies such as the heat pump, that can work both as a heating and cooling supply have new found space in the market, where spaces that only needed heating now need cooling. Heat pumps can satisfy those needs, while being one of the most energy efficient systems on the market. In conjunction with heat pumps, the introduction of smart technologies into the market provides the opportunity to make new constructions in these places, as well as for existing infrastructure to become substantially more energy efficient. Systems such as COSSY, that tracks how many people are entering or exiting a space, or Ecovent and Comfy, which allow for user control over how spaces are heated and cooled, provide new abilities to make spaces more efficient, without having to completely overhaul the construction of the building, but rather just the system itself. These technologies all come at a cost, and those are generally upfront, so government support with lowering the costs of these technologies, while also reducing the subsides for natural gas could spark the surge in more energy efficient technologies. Additionally revamping the market for these systems where its "one size fits all" to tailoring the technologies to certain needs provides more opportunities to maximize the reduction of emissions, while simultaneously making the systems more energy efficient, ultimately make them less expensive to operate.

Document Type

Final Report

Author's School

McKelvey School of Engineering

Author's Department

Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

Class Name

Mechanical Engineering and Material Sciences Independent Study

Date of Submission


Available for download on Friday, June 06, 2025