Naturalists have long suspected that the characteristic V-shaped formation that migratory birds fly in is more efficient. This hypothesis is supported by steady and quasi-steady aerodynamic analyses. However, little is written on analyzing the fully unsteady flows associated with flapping-wing V-shaped formations. To simulate this problem, the authors have applied Ptera Software, an opensource unsteady vortex-lattice method (UVLM) solver specifically designed for flapping-wing analysis. Ptera Software has been previously validated with experimental data and has been demonstrated to be capable of analyzing single ornithopters. The application of Ptera software in simulating formation flight is the subject of this study.

Document Type

Final Report

Author's School

McKelvey School of Engineering

Author's Department

Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

Class Name

Mechanical Engineering and Material Sciences Independent Study

Date of Submission


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