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Author's School

Brown School of Social Work

Date Submitted

Fall 12-12-2014



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In the United States, 43 million residents (9 million households) are un(der) banked. 51.2% (22 million) of this adult population are unbanked due to travel distance, citizenship status, logistics, and costly operational fees. Based on US Census Bureau, they usually earn less than $25,000 per year and spend around 8.3% of their annual income in fees imposed by predatory financial institutions. 48.8% (21 million) are underbanked. This low-to-middle group have either checking or savings accounts, but rely heavy on non-bank providers for other financial transactions.These clusters are mainly African Americans (21.7%),Hispanics (19.3%), and Native Americans (15.5%). This project asks what are the risk factors of social exclusion among older adults in St. Louis? Where are the potential areas that older adults lived with higher levels of social exclusion? How and what kinds of intervention can be implemented in these areas?


Social Work

MOBILE BANKING: A global co-operative solution for un(der)banked populations
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