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In 2011, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation published a groundbreaking report that demonstrated the vast banking disparities throughout the United States. The report illustrated that millions of American’s are either unbanked (no involvement with financial institutions) or underbanked (a significant lack of access to credible and accessible financial institutions). The most recent 2013 FDIC report demonstrated that African-American populations, of any selected demographic group, have the highest prevalence of underbanking (33.1% of total sample) and the highest percentage of unbanked individuals (20.5%) of any demographic group in the United States. Banks are bound by the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 to serve all neighborhoods within a certain distance of their branch locations– a policy that this research contends is more symbolic than effective. This research illustrates its insufficiency in providing equitable financial services to all communities in our city, especially communities of color.
Johnson, Andrew, "Absence Presence: What is the relationship between race, place and access to traditional financial institutions?" (2014). GIS Posters. Poster 128.