Author's School

School of Engineering & Applied Science

Author's Department/Program

Electrical and Systems Engineering

Language

English (en)

Date of Award

5-24-2012

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Chair and Committee

Arye Nehorai

Abstract

We develop and analyze signal processing algorithms to detect, estimate, and track targets using multiple-input multiple-output: MIMO) radar systems. MIMO radar systems have attracted much attention in the recent past due to the additional degrees of freedom they offer. They are commonly used in two different antenna configurations: widely-separated: distributed) and colocated. Distributed MIMO radar exploits spatial diversity by utilizing multiple uncorrelated looks at the target. Colocated MIMO radar systems offer performance improvement by exploiting waveform diversity. Each antenna has the freedom to transmit a waveform that is different from the waveforms of the other transmitters. First, we propose a radar system that combines the advantages of distributed MIMO radar and fully polarimetric radar. We develop the signal model for this system and analyze the performance of the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector by obtaining approximate expressions for the probabilities of detection and false alarm. Using these expressions, we adaptively design the transmit waveform polarizations that optimize the target detection performance. Conventional radar design approaches do not consider the goal of the target itself, which always tries to reduce its detectability. We propose to incorporate this knowledge about the goal of the target while solving the polarimetric MIMO radar design problem by formulating it as a game between the target and the radar design engineer. Unlike conventional methods, this game-theoretic design does not require target parameter estimation from large amounts of training data. Our approach is generic and can be applied to other radar design problems also. Next, we propose a distributed MIMO radar system that employs monopulse processing, and develop an algorithm for tracking a moving target using this system. We electronically generate two beams at each receiver and use them for computing the local estimates. Later, we efficiently combine the information present in these local estimates, using the instantaneous signal energies at each receiver to keep track of the target. Finally, we develop multiple-target estimation algorithms for both distributed and colocated MIMO radar by exploiting the inherent sparsity on the delay-Doppler plane. We propose a new performance metric that naturally fits into this multiple target scenario and develop an adaptive optimal energy allocation mechanism. We employ compressive sensing to perform accurate estimation from far fewer samples than the Nyquist rate. For colocated MIMO radar, we transmit frequency-hopping codes to exploit the frequency diversity. We derive an analytical expression for the block coherence measure of the dictionary matrix and design an optimal code matrix using this expression. Additionally, we also transmit ultra wideband noise waveforms that improve the system resolution and provide a low probability of intercept: LPI).

DOI

https://doi.org/10.7936/K7MG7MJX

Comments

Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.7936/K7MG7MJX

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