Computer Science and Engineering
Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Chair and Committee
Recent genome-wide studies lend support to the idea that the patterns of DNA methylation are in some way related either causally or as a readout of cell-type specific protein binding. We lay the groundwork for a framework to test whether the pattern of DNA methylation levels in a cell combined with protein binding models is sufficient to completely describe the location of the component of proteins binding to its genome in an assayed context. There is only one method, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, WGBS, available to study DNA methylation genome-wide at such high resolution, however its accuracy has not been determined on the scale of individual binding locations. We address this with a two-fold approach. First, we developed an alternative high-resolution, whole-genome assay using a combination of an enrichment-based and a restriction-enzyme-based assay of methylation, methylCRF. While both assays are considered inferior to WGBS, by using two distinct assays, this method has the advantage that each assay in part cancels out the biases of the other. Additionally, this method is up to 15 times lower in cost than WGBS. By formulating the estimation of methylation from the two methods as a structured prediction problem using a conditional random field, this work will also address the general problem of incorporating data of varying qualities -a common characteristic of biological data- for the purpose of prediction. We show that methylCRF is concordant with WGBS within the range of two WGBS methylomes. Due to the lower cost, we were able to analyze at high-resolution, methylation across more cell-types than previously possible and estimate that 28% of CpGs, in regions comprising 11% of the genome, show variable methylation and are enriched in regulatory regions. Secondly, we show that WGBS has inherent resulution limitations in a read count dependent manner and that the identification of unmethylated regions is highly affected by GC-bias in the underlying protocol suggesting simple estimate procedures may not be sufficient for high-resolution analysis. To address this, we propose a novel approach to DNA methylation analysis using change point detection instead of estimating methylation level directly. However, we show that current change-point detection methods are not robust to methylation signal, we therefore explore how to extend current non-parametric methods to simultaneously find change-points as well as characteristic methylation levels. We believe this framework may have the power to examine the connection between changes in methylation and transcription factor binding in the context of cell-type specific behaviors.
Stevens, Michael, "On the Analysis of DNA Methylation" (2014). All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs). 1351.