Document Type

Technical Report


Computer Science and Engineering

Publication Date






Technical Report Number



This paper demonstrates the use of image-space constraints for key frame interpolation. Interpolating in image-space results in sequences with predictable and controlable image trajectories and projected size for selected objects, particularly in cases where the desired center of rotation is not fixed or when the key frames contain perspective distortion changes. Additionally, we provide the user with direct image-space control over {\em how} the key frames are interpolated by allowing them to directly edit the object's projected size and trajectory. Image-space key frame interpolation requires solving the inverse camera problem over a sequence of point constraints. This is a variation of the standard camera pose problem, with the additional constraint that the sequence be visually smooth. We use image-space camera interpolation to globally control the projection, and traditional camera interpolation locally to avoid smoothness problems. We compare and contrast three different constraint-solving systems in terms of accuracy, speed, and stability. The first approach was originally developed to solve this problem [Gleicher and Witken 1992]; we extend it to include internal camera parameter changes. The second approach uses a standard single-frame solver. The third approach is based on a novel camera formulation and we show that it is particularly suited to solving this problem.


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