Additional Authors

Sondra G. Beverly, Mark Schreiner, Jin Huang, Michael Sherraden

Publication Date

Spring 4-1-2021


This research summary presents SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment financial outcomes—Oklahoma College Savings Plan 529 (OK 529) account holding and savings—as of December 31, 2019. Wave 3 of SEED OK occurred when children were about 12 years old, nearing the age when they and their families make decisions about high school curricula and, not long after, postsecondary education.

This summary shows that all children can have an asset-building account with resources that grow over time. In particular, the CDA greatly increases the likelihood that disadvantaged children have assets accumulating for their future education. In addition, the CDA in SEED OK has motivated additional OK 529 account opening by treatment parents, additional savings by parents, and greater representation in the ownership of OK 529 accounts by parents from diverse and less advantaged backgrounds.

Document Type

Research Brief


Asset building


Asset Building

Original Citation

Clancy, M. M., Beverly, S. G., Schreiner, M., Huang, J., & Sherraden, M. (2021). Financial outcomes in a Child Development Account experiment: Full inclusion, success regardless of race or income, investment growth for all (CSD Research Summary 21-06). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Center for Social Development.


SEED for Oklahoma Kids


Child Development Accounts, SEED OK, Wave 3