Publication Date

Fall 10-30-2018


Does the growing number of registered voters represent the diverse population of the United States, particularly the population’s racial, economic, and educational diversity? This research brief examines the characteristics of voters and whether their demographics are associated with voter participation rates in the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and in St. Louis County. It presents findings from zip code–level analyses of voting and registration data. The authors propose a two-pronged strategy for strengthening electoral participation and offer specific policy recommendations.

Document Type

Research Brief


Civic Engagement and Service


Community and National Service

Original Citation

McClendon, G. G., Pitzer, K. A., & Tolani, A. T. (2018, October). Incomplete democracy: The relationship of race, income, and education to voter participation (CSD Research Brief No. 18-41). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Center for Social Development.


Voter Access and Engagement