Publication Date



This research summary consolidates the findings of several studies from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids experiment, a large-scale policy test of universal, automatic, and progressive Child Development Accounts (CDAs). Studies report the positive impacts of the CDA on financial outcomes (e.g., OK 529 college savings account holding and savings) and on nonfinancial outcomes (e.g., educational expectations, mother’s mental health, and child development). The impacts are often greater for disadvantaged and at-risk children. of note, the automatic components make the CDA in SEED OK inclusive and reduce asset inequality early in life. SEED OK studies indicate the importance of automatic account opening, automatic initial deposits, and investment earnings.

Document Type



Financial Inclusion


Asset Building

Original Citation

Beverly, S. G., Clancy, M. M., & Sherraden, M. (2016, March). Universal accounts at birth: Results from SEED for Oklahoma Kids (CSD Research Summary No. 16-07). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Center for Social Development.


SEED for Oklahoma Kids


SEED OK, CDA, child development account, inclusion, academic expectation, asset building, assets, children, college savings, educational expectations, experiment, policy, randomized controlled trial, research summary, saving, savings