Searchable Title

Development and Validation of the 25-Item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Teo, A. R.; Chen, J. I.; Kubo, H.; Katsuki, R.; Sato-Kasai, M.; Shimokawa, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Umene-Nakano, W.; Aikens, J. E.; Kanba, S.; Kato, T. A.

Title, Section

Development and Validation of the 25-Item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2018

Journal Title

Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Volume

72

Issue

10

Pages

780-788

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 29926525

DOI

10.1111/pcn.12691

Abstract

AIM: Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview. RESULTS: The Hikikomori Questionnaire contained 25 items across three subscales representing socialization, isolation, and emotional support. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92). A cut-off score of 42 (out of 100) was associated with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 61%, and positive predictive value of 17%. CONCLUSION: The 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) possesses robust psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its psychometric properties and ability to support clinical assessment of hikikomori is warranted.

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