Searchable Title

Assessing Psychological and Physical Abuse from Children's Perspective: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Picture-Based, Modularized Child-Report Version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale - Revised (CTSPC-R). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Sierau, S.; White, L. O.; Klein, A. M.; Manly, J. T.; von Klitzing, K.; Herzberg, P. Y.

Title, Section

Assessing Psychological and Physical Abuse from Children's Perspective: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Picture-Based, Modularized Child-Report Version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale - Revised (CTSPC-R). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2018

Journal Title

PLoS One

Volume

13

Issue

10

Pages

e0205401

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 30296298

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0205401

Abstract

Scale is available in File S1 on the website. Child victims' reports of psychological and physical abuse by caregivers are a fundamental source of information beyond official records and caregiver reports. However, few or no sensitive and age-appropriate child-report instruments exist that have undergone in-depth validity and reliability testing across a broad age-range. Our study addresses this gap by examining psychometric properties of a picture-based, modularized version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC-R), encompassing the maltreatment subtypes of psychological and physical abuse. A sample of 904 children and adolescents aged 4-16 years from the community (n = 568), child psychiatric services (n = 159), and from Child Protective Services (CPS; n = 177) completed the CTSPC-R. Measures to test convergent (maltreatment in parent interviews and CPS records) and concurrent validity (psychiatric symptoms) were collected. The CTSPC-R comprises 22 items, arranged in three severity modules by increasing level of psychological and physical abuse by caregivers. Companion picture cards were provided for children aged 4 and 8 years. The best fit to the data was attained with a second-order factor model, assuming three inter-correlated factors corresponding to the three severity modules, and a latent second-order factor representing combined physical and psychological abuse. The three factors showed good internal consistencies. Supporting convergent validity at the global and subtype-level of maltreatment, the CTSPC-R severity scale was associated with lifetime CPS-contact, presence of caregiver-reported emotional maltreatment and physical abuse, and dimensions of chronicity and severity. Discriminant validity was supported by non-significant correlations with caregiver-reported lack of supervision, failure to provide, and sexual abuse. Bolstering concurrent validity, moderate and severe physical abuse predicted caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These effects were independent of child age, gender or community vs. non-community samples. Our study supports the CTSPC-R as a scientifically and clinically sound tool for ascertaining the child's own perspective on psychological and physical abuse from an early age onwards.

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