Searchable Title

Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Ang, Y. S.; Lockwood, P.; Apps, M. A.; Muhammed, K.; Husain, M.

Title, Section

Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2017

Journal Title

PLoS One

Volume

12

Issue

1

Pages

e0169938

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 28076387

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0169938

Abstract

Full text in S1 Appendix on the website. Apathy is a debilitating but poorly understood disorder characterized by a reduction in motivation. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. Here we developed the Apathy-Motivation Index (AMI), a brief self-report index of apathy and motivation. Using exploratory factor analysis (in a sample of 505 people), and then confirmatory analysis (in a different set of 479 individuals), we identified subtypes of apathy in behavioural, social and emotional domains. Latent profile analyses showed four different profiles of apathy that were associated with varying levels of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The AMI is a novel and reliable measure of individual differences in apathy and might provide a useful means of probing different mechanisms underlying sub-clinical lack of motivation in otherwise healthy individuals. Moreover, associations between apathy and comorbid states may be reflective of problems in different emotional, social and behavioural domains.

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