Searchable Title

Parental Perceptions of Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: Development and Validation of a New Measure. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Searchable Authors

V Myers
S A Shiloh
L Rosen

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Myers, V.; Shiloh, S.; Rosen, L.

Title, Section

Parental Perceptions of Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: Development and Validation of a New Measure. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2018

Journal Title

BMC Public Health

Volume

18

Issue

1

Pages

1031

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 30126404

DOI

10.1186/s12889-018-5928-1

Abstract

Full Text is in additional file 1 on the website. BACKGROUND: It is estimated that around 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke, largely by their parents. Discrepancies between biochemical measures of exposure and parental report imply that parents may be under-reporting children's exposure. Previous research has shown that there may be a fundamental misunderstanding among smoking parents as to what exactly exposure is and in what circumstances it occurs. METHODS: We aimed to develop and validate a measure to assess parental perceptions of exposure (PPE) regarding child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). A model was developed based on a qualitative study of smoking parents and a questionnaire constructed using pictures and vignettes to assess parental rating of children's exposure in hypothetical situations. The questionnaire was completed online by 220 Israeli parents recruited via social media. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, and reliability and internal consistency were assessed using test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: Factor analysis produced 6 factors for PPE which explained a cumulative total variance of 76.3%. Factors were termed: 1) second-hand exposure; 2) third-hand exposure; 3) perceived knowledge/certainty; 4) sensory perceptions; 5) time perceptions; and 6) distance perceptions. All sub-scales showed good internal consistency and variance. Test-retest reliability was high (r = 0.856, p = .001). Total PPE score and subscales were highly correlated with risk perceptions r = 0.766. Smokers scored significantly lower on PPE than non-smokers, defining fewer situations as involving greater exposure (p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed PPE was able to discriminate smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide supporting evidence for the PPE as a reliable and valid construct, which can be feasibly measured. Smokers perceived exposure less frequently than non-smokers. This new measure can shed light on parental smoking behaviour and may help us to increase parental awareness of exposure in order to potentially reduce children's exposure to tobacco smoke.

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