Searchable Title

Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions (PBACE, 2012) (appears in: Development and Validation of the Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions Questionnaire.) Copyright: American Psychological Association.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Halberstadt, A. G.; Dunsmore, J. C.; Bryant, A.; Parker, A. E.; Beale, K. S.; Thompson, J. A.

Title, Section

Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions (PBACE, 2012) (appears in: Development and Validation of the Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions Questionnaire.) Copyright: American Psychological Association.

Publication Year

2013

Journal Title

Psychological Assessment

Volume

25

Issue

4

Pages

1195-1210

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 23914957

DOI

10.1037/a0033695

Abstract

Full text Instrument is in the Appendix. Parents' beliefs about children's emotions comprise an important aspect of parental emotion socialization and may relate to children's mental health and well-being. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop the multifaceted Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions (PBACE) questionnaire. Central to our work was inclusion of multiple ethnic groups throughout the questionnaire development process, from initial item creation through assessment of measurement invariance and validity. Participants included 1,080 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian parents of 4- to 10-year-old children who completed the initial item pool for the PBACE. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted with 720 of these parents to identify factor structure and reduce items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted with a holdout sample of 360 parents to evaluate model fit and assess measurement invariance across ethnicity and across parent gender. Finally, validity of the PBACE scales was assessed via correlations with measures of parental emotional expressivity and reactions to children's emotions. The PBACE is composed of 33 items in 7 scales. All scales generally demonstrated measurement invariance across ethnic groups and parent gender, thereby allowing interpretations of differences across these ethnic groups and between mothers and fathers as true differences rather than by-products of measurement variance. Initial evidence of discriminant and construct validity for the scale interpretations was also obtained. Results suggest that the PBACE will be useful for researchers interested in emotion-related socialization processes in diverse ethnic groups and their impact on children's socioemotional outcomes and well-being.

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