Searchable Title

Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Social Support Scale for Self-Care in Middle-Aged Patients with Type II Diabetes (S4-MAD). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Naderimagham, S.; Niknami, S.; Abolhassani, F.; Hajizadeh, E.; Montazeri, A.

Title, Section

Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Social Support Scale for Self-Care in Middle-Aged Patients with Type II Diabetes (S4-MAD). Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2012

Journal Title

BMC Public Health

Volume

12

Issue

Nov. 28

Pages

1035

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 23190685

DOI

10.1186/1471-2458-12-1035

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care. This study aimed to develop a scale for evaluating social support for self-care in middle-aged patients (30-60 years old) with type II diabetes. METHODS: This was a two-phase qualitative and quantitative study. The study was conducted during 2009 to 2011 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part, a sample of diabetic patients participated in four focus group discussions in order to develop a preliminary item pool. Consequently, content and face validity were performed to provide a pre-final version of the questionnaire. Then, in a quantitative study, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity and factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were performed to assess psychometric properties of the scale. RESULTS: A 38-item questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. It was reduced to a 33-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 30-item with a five-factor solution (nutrition, physical activity, self monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and smoking) that jointly accounted for 72.3% of observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.94), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC=0.87). CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social support for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes. It is an easy to use questionnaire and contains the most significant diabetes related behaviors that need continuous support for self-care.

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