Searchable Title

Health Literate Health Care Organization 10 Item Questionnaire (HLHO-10): Development and Validation. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Authors, Section

Kowalski, C.; Lee, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.; Wesselmann, S.; Wirtz, M. A.; Pfaff, H.; Ernstmann, N.

Title, Section

Health Literate Health Care Organization 10 Item Questionnaire (HLHO-10): Development and Validation. Copyright: Creative Commons License.

Publication Year

2015

Journal Title

BMC Health Services Research

Volume

15

Issue

Feb. 1

Pages

47

Availability

online

PMID

PMID: 25638047

DOI

10.1186/s12913-015-0707-5

Abstract

BACKGROUND: While research on individual health literacy is steadily increasing, less attention has been paid to the context of care that may help to increase the patient's ability to navigate health care or to compensate for their limited health literacy. In 2012, Brach et al. introduced the concept of health literate health care organizations (HLHOs) to describe the organizational context of care. This paper presents our effort in developing and validating an HLHO instrument. METHOD: Ten items were developed to represent the ten attributes of HLHO (HLHO-10) based on a literature review, an expert workshop, a focus group discussion, and qualitative interviews. The instrument was applied in a key informant survey in 51 German hospitals as part of a larger study on patient information and training needs (PIAT-study). Item properties were analyzed and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the instrument's unidimensionality. To investigate the instrument's predictive validity, a multilevel analysis was performed that used the HLHO-10 score to predict the adequacy of information provided to 1,224 newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients treated at the sample hospitals. RESULTS: Cronbach's α of the resulting scale was 0.89. CFA verified the one-factor structure after allowing for the correlation for four pairs of error terms. In the multilevel model, HLHO-10 significantly predicted the adequacy of information as perceived by patients. CONCLUSION: The instrument has satisfactory reliability and validity. It provides a useful tool to assess the degree to which health care organizations help patients to navigate, understand, and use information and services. Further validation should include participant observation in health care organizations and a sample that is not limited to breast cancer care.

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