Date of Award

Winter 12-19-2019

Author's School

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

Author's Department


Degree Name

Master of Arts (AM/MA)

Degree Type



Previous research suggests that while sleep and retrieval practice can each improve memory on their own, their benefits cannot be combined to produce an additive effect unless feedback is given during the initial test. These previous findings would seem to support a retrieval-as-consolidation of the testing effect, which states that the benefits of retrieval are the result of memory consolidation, a process that normally occurs during the sleep cycle. The present study sought to determine whether the retrieval-as-consolidation account held true when initial test accuracy was considered as a factor. Using foreign language word pairs, we examined the combined effects of sleep, corrective feedback, and initial test accuracy on memory retention after a 12-hour delay. Results suggest that corrective feedback is not necessary to produce a benefit of sleep after a successful retrieval. Feedback only mattered when there was a failure to retrieve during the initial test. These findings suggest that the benefits of retrieval are likely not the result of a memory consolidation process.


English (en)

Chair and Committee

Dr. Mitchell Sommers

Committee Members

Dr. Henry Roediger Dr. Andrew Butler


Permanent URL: https://doi.org/10.7936/tvnv-p236