Urban Law Annual
Like most early housing codes, the 1967 New York City Housing Maintenance Code was enforceable by criminal, not civil proceedings. An earlier version, which had included civil remedies and procedures as an alternative to criminal prosecution, was rejected by the City Council because it could not agree on parallel utilization of the existing civil and criminal court structures; creation of a new, consolidated housing court, with both civil and criminal jurisdiction; or creation of an administrative tribunal, with the power to impose civil penalties and grant other forms of relief, within the enforcement agency.
Albert A. Walsh,
Housing Code Enforcement in New York City—Another Look at an Administrative Tribunal,
17 Urb. L. Ann. 51
Available at: http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/law_urbanlaw/vol17/iss1/8