Author's School

Graduate School of Arts & Sciences

Author's Department/Program

Biology and Biomedical Sciences: Neurosciences

Language

English (en)

Date of Award

January 2009

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Chair and Committee

Marcus Raichle

Abstract

The brain is not a silent, complex input/output system waiting to be driven by external stimuli; instead, it is a closed, self-referential system operating on its own with sensory information modulating rather than determining its activity. Ongoing spontaneous brain activity costs the majority of the brain's energy budget, maintains the brain's functional architecture, and makes predictions about the environment and the future. I have completed three separate studies on the functional significance and the organization of spontaneous brain activity. The first study showed that strokes disrupt large-scale network coherence in the spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging: fMRI) signals, and that the degree of such disruption predicts the behavioral impairment of the patient. This study established the functional significance of coherent patterns in the spontaneous fMRI signals. In the second study, by combining fMRI and electrophysiology in neurosurgical patients, I identified the neurophysiological signal underlying the coherent patterns in the spontaneous fMRI signal, the slow cortical potential: SCP). The SCP is a novel neural correlate of the fMRI signal, most likely underlying both spontaneous fMRI signal fluctuations and task-evoked fMRI responses. Some theoretical considerations have led me to propose a hypothesis on the involvement of the neural activity indexed by the SCP in the emergence of consciousness. In the last study I investigated the temporal organization across a wide range of frequencies in the spontaneous electrical field potentials recorded from the human brain. This study demonstrated that the arrhythmic, scale-free brain activity often discarded in human and animal electrophysiology studies in fact contains rich, complex structures, and further provided evidence supporting the functional significance of such activity.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.7936/K7SQ8XFN

Comments

Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.7936/K7SQ8XFN

Share

COinS